Bitcoin
BTC$60 506.94

6.81%

Ethereum
ETH$3 323.07

2.33%

Tether
USDT$1.000437

0.01%

Binance Coin
BNB$409.88

3.60%

Solana
SOL$116.31

6.82%

XRP
XRP$0.572365

-1.88%

Patched vulnerability could’ve crippled ETH over the past 2 years


19 May 2021

#Ethereum

The Ethereum Foundation has come clean about a security vulnerability first spotted in 2019 that could have brought the mainnet to a halt until the Berlin upgrade last month. The Ethereum Foundation has published a blog post outlining a potentially catastrophic vulnerability that could have resulted in the mainnet being brought down at a cost of less than five-figures up until the execution of the Berlin hardfork last month.

A May 18 blog post describes the vulnerability as having posed “a severe threat against the Ethereum platform” until April’s upgrades allowed it to dodge the bullet. The report describes the threat as having been an “open secret,” noting it was once publicly disclosed by mistake. Following the implementation of the Berlin hard fork, the foundation estimates the threat is low enough to warrant full disclosure at this time, stating:

“It’s important that the community is given a chance to understand the reasoning behind changes that negatively affect the user experience, such as raising gas costs and limiting refunds.”

The post details that Ethereum’s state consists of a patricia-merkle trie, conceptually likening new accounts on the Ethereum network to new leaves growing on a tree. With the growth of the Ethereum network, increases to gas costs have been implemented from October 2016 to protect against denial-of-service attacks, including the controversial Ethereum Improvement Proposal, or EIP-1884. In 2019, Ethereum security researchers Hubert Ritzdorf, Matthias Egli, and Daniel Perez teamed up to weaponize an exploit enabled by the recent upgrades, with the attack triggering random trie lookups that could “lead to blocktimes in the minute-range.” A report published that year stated that delays caused by the attack will become longer as Ethereum’s state grows, “which allows efficient DoS attacks against Ethereum.”

After various proposals from developers were rejected throughout 2020, Vitalik Buterin teamed up with Martin Swende to author EIP-2929 and EIP-2930 — upgrades that raised gas prices “only for things not already accessed” to prevent the attack. The EIPs were introduced alongside the Berlin upgrade on April 15, 2021. As such, the blog estimates the Berlin upgrade reduced the effectiveness of the exploit by 50 times.

Ethereum is not the only network to come clean about long-term vulnerabilities after implementing upgrades to protect against said exploits. In September 2020, crypto researchers Braydond Fuller and Javed Khan published a paper revealing a “high” severity vulnerability for layer-two solutions built on top of BTC such as the Lightning Network. Despite the vulnerability being introduced and the authors estimating 50% of Bitcoin nodes were exposed to the vector, the authors did not identify any attempts at exploiting the weakness.


Related

Crypto may be ready for a new leg down
Crypto may be ready for a new leg down
Cryptocurrencies wait for a signal
Cryptocurrencies wait for a signal
What are dynamic NFTs?: Use cases and examples
What are dynamic NFTs?: Use cases and examples
Shanghai Upgrade Fires Up ETH and Altcoins
Shanghai Upgrade Fires Up ETH and Altcoins
Challenges of data accessibility in the NFT market
Challenges of data accessibility in the NFT market
Is the A.I. revolution about to pump Nvidia stocks?
Is the A.I. revolution about to pump Nvidia stocks?
Five tips for investing during a global recession
Five tips for investing during a global recession
What is NFT ticketing and how does it work?
What is NFT ticketing and how does it work?
The crypto market is cheaper than a trillion again
The crypto market is cheaper than a trillion again

Top Cryptocurrencies with Price Predictions

# Crypto Prediction Accuracy CVIX Price 24h 7d Market Cap 7d price change
1 Bitcoin (BTC) BTC Bitcoin predictions 62.4% 76 $60 506.94 6.81% 17.78% $1 188 373 024 325 BTC 7 days price change
2 Ethereum (ETH) ETH Ethereum predictions 60% 80 $3 323.07 2.33% 13.59% $399 270 630 707 ETH 7 days price change
3 Tether (USDT) USDT Tether predictions 92% 1 $1.000437 0.01% 0.05% $98 433 906 633 USDT 7 days price change
4 Binance Coin (BNB) BNB Binance Coin predictions 68.8% 69 $409.88 3.60% 9.61% $61 293 901 306 BNB 7 days price change
5 Solana (SOL) SOL Solana predictions 78.4% 41 $116.31 6.82% 11.46% $51 478 731 317 SOL 7 days price change
6 XRP (XRP) XRP XRP predictions 81.6% 29 $0.572365 -1.88% 4.85% $31 247 828 742 XRP 7 days price change
7 USD Coin (USDC) USDC USD Coin predictions 93.2% 1 $0.999818 0% -0.02% $28 723 757 433 USDC 7 days price change
8 Cardano (ADA) ADA Cardano predictions 66% 66 $0.626473 0.27% 5.94% $22 225 630 080 ADA 7 days price change
9 Dogecoin (DOGE) DOGE Dogecoin predictions 82% 27 $0.114147 16.76% 35.93% $16 353 064 712 DOGE 7 days price change
10 Avalanche (AVAX) AVAX Avalanche predictions 74% 50 $40.12 2.28% 7.90% $15 132 487 988 AVAX 7 days price change
11 TRON (TRX) TRX TRON predictions 71.2% 63 $0.141938 -0.62% 1.77% $12 488 460 496 TRX 7 days price change
12 Wrapped TRON (WTRX) WTRX Wrapped TRON predictions 72% 61 $0.141829 -0.60% 2.04% $12 478 895 075 WTRX 7 days price change
13 Chainlink (LINK) LINK Chainlink predictions 76% 44 $19.16 0.36% 4.34% $11 251 240 626 LINK 7 days price change
14 Polkadot (DOT) DOT Polkadot predictions 74% 48 $8.23 -1.13% 10.85% $10 565 653 529 DOT 7 days price change
15 Lido stETH (STETH) STETH Lido stETH predictions 93.2% 1 $2 941.39 -0.40% -3.32% $10 258 752 564 STETH 7 days price change

Be the first to receive Cryptocurrency Price Predictions and Forecasts daily

Get cryptocurrency price predictions, forecasts with analysis and news right to your inbox.

© 2015-2024 Crypto-Rating.com

The usage of this website constitutes acceptance of the following legal information. Any contracts of financial instruments offered to conclude bear high risks and may result in the full loss of the deposited funds. Prior to making transactions one should get acquainted with the risks to which they relate. All the information featured on the website, including information about the cryptocurrencies and bitcoin is intended solely for informational purposes, is not a means of advertising them, and doesn't imply direct instructions for investing. Crypto Rating shall not be liable for any loss, including unlimited loss of funds, which may arise directly or indirectly from the usage of this information. The editorial staff of the website does not bear any responsibility whatsoever for the content of the comments or reviews made by the site users about cryptocurrencies. The entire responsibility for the contents rests with the authors. Reprint of the materials is available only with the permission of the editorial staff.